California has become the first US state to ban pet retailers from selling animals that are not from rescues and shelters.
Outgoing California Governor Jerry Brown signed new regulations in his last term and they came into affect on January 1.
The new law also requires that stores keep records for each animal and post signage listing the shelter from which each animal was received.
A pet store operator can be fined $500 (£394) if found in violation of the new law.
But Steve MacKinnon, of the San Diego Humane Society, maintains that it is unlikely it would partner with retailers now that the law has been implemented.
But the American Kennel Club, has opposed the new legal requirement, saying it is the work of ‘anti-breeder animal rights extremists’, according to press reports.
“Furthermore, AB 485 will dramatically reduce every Californian’s access and ability to choose a pet with the predictable type, mandated care and substantiated health backgrounds that come with purebred pets from regulated sources,” the American Kennel Club says in a statement.
Cats, dogs and rabbits bought directly from breeders will not be affected by the new regulation.